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Analogous to President and Prime minister, each has a governor (in case of states) or lieutenant governor (in the case of Union territories) and a chief Minister. Article 356 permits the President to dismiss a state government and assume direct authority when a situation has arisen in which the government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. This power, known as President's rule, was abused earlier as state governments came to be dismissed on the flimsiest of grounds, and more due to the political discomfiture of the party in power at the centre. Post  Bommai judgment, 42 43 such a course of action has been rendered rather difficult, as the courts have asserted their right to review. 44 Consequently, very few state governments have been disbanded since. The 73rd and 74th Amendment Act also introduced the system of Panchayati raj in rural areas and Municipality in urban areas.

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Get their power from the constitution and are bound. 40 With the aid of the constitution, India is governed by a parliamentary system of government with the executive directly accountable to iron the legislature. It states that there shall be a president of India who shall be the head of the executive, under Articles 52 and. The President's duty is to preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law under Article 60 of the Indian constitution. Article 74 provides that there shall be a prime minister business as the head of union cabinet which would aid and advise the President in performing his constitutional duty. Union cabinet is collectively responsible to the house of the people per Article 75(3). The constitution of India is federal in nature but unitary in spirit. The common features of a federation such as written Constitution, supremacy of Constitution, rigidity of Constitution, two government, division of powers, bicameralism and independent judiciary as well as unitary features like single constitution, single citizenship, integrated judiciary, flexible constitution, a strong Centre, appointment of state. Can be seen in Indian Constitution. This unique combination makes it quasi-federal in form. 41 Each state and each Union territory of India has its own government.

39 Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2) "Anti-defection" provisions for Members of Parliament and Members of the State legislatures. Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) — panchayat Raj (rural local government Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — municipalities (urban local government). Appendices Appendix plan i the constitution (Application to jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954. Appendix ii re-statement, with reference to the present text of the constitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject to which the constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Appendix iii extracts from the constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978. Appendix iv the constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002. Appendix v the constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003. The constitution and the government Institutions of governance the parliament, the President, the judiciary, the Executive, etc.

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Third Schedule (Articles 75(4 99, 124(6 148(2 164(3 188 and 219) Forms of Oaths This lists the oaths of offices for elected officials and judges. Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2) This details the allocation of seats in the rajya sabha (the upper house of Parliament) per State or Union Territory. Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1) This provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas Note 5 and Scheduled Tribes Note 6 (areas from and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions). Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1) Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, meghalaya, tripura, and mizoram. Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — The union (central government state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities. Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351)—The official languages. Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) Validation paperwork of certain Acts and Regulations.

Note 1 At its commencement, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It is made up of approximately 145,000 words, making it the second largest active constitution in the world. 23 In its current form (September 2012 it has a preamble, 25 Note 2 parts with 448 Note 3 articles, 12 Note 4 schedules, 5 appendices 24 and 101 amendments, the latest of which came into force on 8 September 2016. 25 Parts The individual articles of the constitution are grouped together into the following parts: with the words "socialist" and "secular" added to it in 1976 by the 42nd constitutional amendment. 27 28 Part xii finance, property, contracts and suits Part xiii trade and Commerce within the territory of India part xiv services Under the Union, the States Part xiva tribunals Part xv elections Part xvi special Provisions Relating to certain Classes Part xvii languages Part. Schedules Schedules are lists in the constitution that categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the government. First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4)  This lists the states and territories of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make that change. Second Schedule (Articles 59(3 65(3 75(6 97, 125, 148(3 158(3 164(5 186 and 221)  This lists the salaries of officials holding public office, judges, and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

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284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete. 14 This day is celebrated as National Law day 15 or Constitution day. 16 The assembly met in sessions open to the public, for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the constitution, the 308 members of the assembly signed two copies of the document (one each in Hindi. The illustrations on the cover and pages represent styles from the different civilisations of the subcontinent, biographies ranging from the prehistoric Mohenjodaro civilisation, in the Indus Valley, to the present. The calligraphy in the book was done by Prem Behari narain raizda. It was published in Dehra dun, and photolithographed at the offices of Survey of India. The entire exercise to produce the original took nearly five years.

Two days later, on, the constitution of India became the law of all the States and territories of India. 17.1,00,00,000 was official estimate of expenditure on constituent assembly. It has undergone many amendments since its enactment. 18 The original 1950 Constitution of India is preserved in helium cases in the parliament house, new Delhi. There are two original versions of this one in Hindi and the other in English. The original constitution can be viewed here. 19 Influence of other constitutions Structure The Indian constitution is the world's longest.

He was responsible for the general structure of its democratic framework of the constitution and prepared its initial draft in February 1948. 12 This draft was debated, revised and finally adopted by the constituent Assembly of India on 26 november 1949. 13 On meeting of the Assembly, a proposal for forming various committees was presented. 10 Such committees included a committee on Fundamental Rights, the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. On, the Drafting Committee was appointed, with. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members assisted by a constitutional advisor.


These members were pandit govind Ballabh Pant, kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (unshi, ex- home minister, bombay alladi Krishnaswamy iyer (Ex- Advocate general, madras State n gopalaswami ayengar (Ex-Prime minister, j k and later member of Nehru cabinet itter (Ex-Advocate general, India. Saadullah (Ex- Chief Minister of Assam, muslim league member) and haitan (Scion of Khaitan Business family and a renowned lawyer). The constitutional advisor was Sir Benegal Narsing rau (who became first Indian Judge in International court of Justice, 195054). Later itter resigned and was replaced by madhav rao (Legal Advisor of Maharaja of Vadodara). On haitan's death, rishnamachari was included in the drafting committee. A draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 november 1947, which was debated and over 2000 amendments were moved over a period of two years. Finally on 26 november 1949, the process was completed and the constituent Assembly adopted the constitution.

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Citation needed Prominent jurists like alladi Krishnaswamy iyer, benegal Narsing rau and. Munshi, ganesh mavlankar were also members essay of the Assembly. Sarojini naidu, hansa mehta, durgabai deshmukh, rajkumari Amrit kaur and Vijayalakshmi pandit were important women members. Citation needed The mother first temporary 2-day president of the constituent Assembly was Dr Sachchidananda sinha. Later, rajendra Prasad was elected president of the constituent Assembly. 10 The members of the constituent Assembly met for the first time on 9 December 1946. Rau was appointed as the constitutional Adviser to the constituent Assembly in formulating the Indian Constitution in 1946.

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Ambedkar to prepare a draft Constitution for India. While deliberating upon the draft Constitution, the assembly moved, discussed and disposed of as many as 2,473 amendments out of a total of 7,635 tabled. Ambedkar, book sanjay phakey, jawaharlal Nehru,. Rajagopalachari, rajendra Prasad, sardar Vallabhbhai patel, kanaiyalal Munshi, ganesh Vasudev mavalankar, sandipkumar Patel, maulana Abul Kalam azad, shyama Prasad mukherjee, nalini ranjan Ghosh, and Balwantrai mehta were some important figures in the assembly. There were more than 30 members of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, and the parsis were represented. The Chairman of the minorities Committee was Harendra coomar mookerjee, a distinguished Christian who represented all Christians other than Anglo-Indians. Ari bahadur Gurung represented the gorkha community.

force on 26 november 1949 and the remaining articles on 9 Previous legislation used as sources It is drawn from many sources. Keeping in mind the needs and conditions of India its framers borrowed different features freely from previous legislation viz. Government of India act 1858, indian councils Act 1861, indian councils Act 1892, indian councils Act 1909, government of India act 1919, government of India act 1935 and the Indian Independence Act 1947. The last legislation which led to the creation of the two independent nations of India and pakistan provided for the division of the erstwhile constituent Assembly into two, with each new assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it, to enable each to draft and enact. Citation needed constituent assembly a meeting of the constituent Assembly of India, 1950 ce main article: Constituent Assembly of India it was drafted by the constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. 10 The 389 member Constituent Assembly took almost three years (two years, eleven months and eighteen days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the constitution for independent India, during which, it held eleven sessions over 165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the consideration of the draft Constitution. On, the constituent Assembly set up a drafting Committee under the Chairmanship.

To ensure constitutional autochthony, the framers of the constitution repealed the prior Acts of the British Parliament via article 395 of the constitution. India celebrates its coming into force on 26 January each year,. 6, it declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, 7 democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity among them. 8 Contents Background. Babasaheb Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the Indian Constitution. Rajendra Prasad essay on 25 november 1949 The major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1857 to 1947. When the constitution of India came into force on, it repealed the Indian Independence Act. India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign democratic republic.

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The, constitution of India is the supreme law of, india. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. Note 1 2,. Ambedkar, the chairman of the Drafting Committee, is widely considered to be its chief architect. It imparts constitutional supremacy and not parliamentary supremacy, as it is not created by the parliament but, by a constituent assembly, and adopted by its people, with a declaration in its preamble. 3, parliament cannot override the constitution. It was adopted by the, constituent Assembly on 26 november 1949, and came into effect on With its adoption, the. Dominion of India became the modern and contemporary, republic of India replacing for the, government of India act, 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document.


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